This was basically an upgrade to the ERA (Explosive Reactive Armor) protection. The “V” stood for Vzryvnoj (or “explosive”). Not all T-55s were upgraded this way, many still kept the standard passive BDD/appliqué armor. The standardized ERA bricks (EDZ for “elementi dinamicheskoj zashchity”) are mounted on the hull, turret front and hull sides. The Elite units of the Soviet Naval Infantry were first to deploy these tanks, followed by the rest of the army in a gradual process after the collapse of the Soviet Union, and extended to previous versions like the T-55AMV (AM) and T-55MV (T-55M). These were also exported, notably to some Iraqi elite republican guards units. The sub-variant V-1 received the V-46-5M engine upgrade.
By the 1970s, the Stasi had decided that the methods of overt persecution that had been employed up to that time, such as arrest and torture, were too crude and obvious. It was realised that psychological harassment was far less likely to be recognised for what it was, so its victims, and their supporters, were less likely to be provoked into active resistance, given that they would often not be aware of the source of their problems, or even its exact nature. Zersetzung was designed to side-track and "switch off" perceived enemies so that they would lose the will to continue any "inappropriate" activities.
55east together with BlueProfit in Munich, Germany, Shanghai Visionary Consulting in Beijing/Shanghai and Batswadi in Johannesburg, South Africa, have built the International Health Care Consulting Network (IHCC) to work with clients across the Health Care and Life Sciences industry. We provide strategic advice, operational experience and training to pharmaceutical and biotech companies, the medical technology industry, hospitals and clinics and health care payers. Based in four world regions, the IHCC employs local consultants to generate market insights and analysis in the Middle East, Africa, Europe and China and applies an integrated strategic perspective to the future of health care.