A more powerful alternative, that bypasses the limitations of single-dose approaches, is to directly fit multiple sets of functional data over a wide range of receptor concentrations using molecular-based interaction models. We illustrate this approach using the example of GR and its interactions with multiple HREs. We first experimentally determined complete dose–response curves for the seven response elements shown in Table 1 . We then globally fit the curves to a simple equilibrium binding model: the experimentally determined GR binding affinity ( K tot,i ) for each response element i was a fixed parameter, but the maximal ( d ) and minimal ( e ) fold-activities were allowed to float to values common for all response elements:
The binding of the glucocorticoid receptor-steroid complex from a line of rat hepatoma tissue culture (HTC) cells to DNA has been examined. An equilibrium competition assay involving a constant, low total amount of double-stranded DNA was developed to compare the complex binding ability of DNA free in solution and bound to cellulose. This binding ability is lowered by a factor of five when DNA is associated with cellulose. Similar studies with HTC cell, calf-thymus, and Escherichia coli DNA revealed no difference in the relative number or affinity of binding sites for receptor-steroid complex in each DNA. The synthetic DNA molecules poly[d(A-T)-d(A-T)] and poly[d(G-C)-d(G-C)] bound complexes equally well but less than the three "natural" DNA molecules. This appears to be due to differences in acceptor site affinity and suggests that nucleotide complexity and/or sequence influences the affinity of HTC cell receptor-glucocorticoid complexes for DNA.
Anabolic steroids are synthetic substances related to male sex hormones (androgens). Although it is illegal in the United States to possess or distribute anabolic steroids for nonmedical use, a "black market" for them exists, and many amateur and professional athletes take them to enhance performance. In many cases, the athletes take doses that are extremely high—perhaps 100 times the doses that might be prescribed for medical use. As a result, they put themselves in real danger of short-term and long-term health problems. Blood testing, as has been used in the Olympic Games, can detect, identify, and quantify the presence of anabolic steroids in the blood of athletes, which can lead to the disqualification of an athlete.