Native Americans appear to have a lower rate of AD than whites, but equivalent rates of overall cognitive impairment or dementia. Hendrie et al. (1993) examined 192 Cree, aged 65 and older, living on two reserves in Manitoba, Canada, and an age-stratified sample of 241 English-speaking whites living in Winnipeg. Using the Community Screening Interview for Dementia (CSID) to screen for cognitive impairment, the authors found a significant difference between the age-adjusted prevalence of AD among the Cree Indians ( percent) as compared to whites ( percent), despite the two groups having an equivalent age-adjusted prevalence of dementia ( percent in each population).
The TIEQ Lab was constructed with low-VOC materials, and low levels of VOCs were confirmed by pretesting ( Table 3 ). To simulate a conventional office space with elevated VOCs, we placed VOC sources in the diffuser that supplied air to each cubicle area before the participants arrived on Day 5. We selected a target total VOC (TVOC) level of 500 μg/m 3 based on the LEED ® Indoor Air Quality Assessment credit limit, as measured using . EPA method TO-15 ( USGBC 2014 ). The diffusers were built into the floor of the TIEQ Lab, and there were no visible indicators of these sources for the participants to observe. We selected a mix of nonodoriferous sources to simulate VOC-emitting materials that are commonly found in office buildings and that covered four indoor VOC source categories including building materials [56 in 2 (360 cm 2 ) exposed edge melamine, 56 in 2 (360 cm 2 ) exposed edge particle board, 64 in 2 (415 cm 2 ) vinyl mat], adhesives [80 in 2 (520 cm 2 ) duct tape, 80 in 2 (520 cm 2 ) packing tape (exposed)], cleaning products [1 oz. (30 mL) multi-surface cleaner, 4 multi-surface wipes, 144 in 2 (930 cm 2 ) recently dry-cleaned cloth], and office supplies (4 dry erase markers, 1 open bottle of correction fluid).
The arch of the aorta is the second major anatomical region of the aorta; it curves above the heart between the ascending and descending aorta. All of the blood delivered from the heart to the systemic tissues of the body passes through the aorta, making it the largest artery in the human body. As the aorta extends from the heart, it begins as the ascending aorta before turning 180 degrees towards the body’s left side in the aortic arch. From the arch the aorta passes posterior to the heart and descends through the thorax and abdomen as the descending aorta.